A Doctor of African Cultures (Hausa)

Sunday, December 30, 2018

Adabin RuƘiyya A Goshin Ƙarni Na Ashirin Da Ɗaya




‘Ruƙiyya’ asalin kalmar  daga Larabci ne ‘Ruƙyah’ amma Hausawa suka mayar da ita ‘Ruƙiyya’. Bisa ga haka, za a ci gaba da amfani da kalmar Ruƙiyya a wannan muƙala. Ruƙiyya wata hanya ce ta samun waraka daga rashin lafiya musamman wadda ta shafi cutar iskoki. Duk da kasancewar ruƙiyya ta samo asali tun daga Mazon Allah (SAW), amma a ƙasar Hausa da maƙwabtanta, sha’anin ruƙiyya ya zama kamar wani sabon abu. A goshin ƙarni na ashirin da ɗaya, farkon shigowar ruƙiyya an samu saɓani da zanga-zanga na halaccin ta, daga ɓangarorin malaman addinin Musulunci. Malaman Ƙungiyar Izala su suka karɓi ruƙiyya da aiwatar da ita bisa ga tsarin da ta zo...
Adabin RuƘiyya A Goshin Ƙarni Na Ashirin Da Ɗaya
(Waiwayon Tarihi da Diddigin Bunƙasar Ruƙiyya a Yau)
--------------------------------------------
Yakubu Aliyu Gobir (PhD)
Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya
Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sakkwato
08035605024
--------------------------------------------
Takardar da aka gabatar a taron ƙara wa juna sani na Ƙasa da Ƙasa a kan Nazarin Harshen Hausa a qarni na 21st, wanda Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya Jami'ar Bayero, Kano, ya shirya, daga ranar Litinin 10 zuwa Laraba 13 ga watan Nuwamba, 2014.

Tsakure
‘Ruƙiyya’ asalin kalmar  daga Larabci ne ‘Ruƙyah’ amma Hausawa suka mayar da ita ‘Ruƙiyya’. Bisa ga haka, za a ci gaba da amfani da kalmar Ruƙiyya a wannan muƙala. Ruƙiyya wata hanya ce ta samun waraka daga rashin lafiya musamman wadda ta shafi cutar iskoki. Duk da kasancewar ruƙiyya ta samo asali tun daga Mazon Allah (SAW), amma a ƙasar Hausa da maƙwabtanta, sha’anin ruƙiyya ya zama kamar wani sabon abu. A goshin ƙarni na ashirin da ɗaya, farkon shigowar ruƙiyya an samu saɓani da zanga-zanga na halaccin ta, daga ɓangarorin malaman addinin Musulunci. Malaman Ƙungiyar Izala su suka karɓi ruƙiyya da aiwatar da ita bisa ga tsarin da ta zo da shi. Daga baya wani ɓangare daga cikinsu suka soki yanayin yadda ake aiwatar da ita. Wannan sukar, ta ƙara wa garin ruƙiyya nono, ta samu karɓuwa sosai a ƙasar Hausa da maƙwabtanta, musamman bayan samun ƙarin shigowar rubuce-rubuce da bayanan hujjoji daga masana. Haɓakar ruƙiyya ya dushe hasken bori da girka a ƙasar Hausa. A ƙasashen Larabawa ma da na Turai, babu waɗanda kasuwarsu ke ci gadan-gadan, daga cikin masu ba da maganin iskoki, kamar masu ruƙiyya. Masana da dama da ɗalibansu sun yi rubuce-rubuce a kan lamarin ruƙiyya, musamman a cikin Larabci da Turanci da kuma Hausa. Waɗannan rubuce-rubucen sun kawo haɓakar ruƙiyya, ta zama ruwan dare game duniya, musamman a wannan lokaci na Ɗayanta Duniya. Maƙasudin wannan maƙala shi ne bitar wasu daga cikin waɗannan rubuce-rubucen, domin fito da tasirin da suka yi wa al’ummomin Duniya a wajen tunkarar lamarin iskoki.

Abstract
EXORCISM AND LITERATURE IN THE 21ST CENTURY
Exorcism (Ruƙya) is a process by which those who are ill due to spirit possession are treated. Though exorcism originated from the time of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) it is seen as a strange thing in Hausa land and neighboring countries. Initially, in this century, exorcism has not been fully accepted. This was because there was an in-house dispute among the Izala movement on its authentication. The dispute makes the exorcism becomes more spread and prominent to people. With the arrival of more literatures in Arabic, English as well as Hausa Languages on the virtues of exorcism, people begin to invite and accept it.  The popularity of ruƙiyya also makes the use of bori/girka as therapy becomes diffused. Now, the use of exorcism becomes globally accepted. The aim of this paper is to review these literatures and show their global influence on the treatment of spirit possession.         
1.0  Gabatarwa
Al’ummar Hausawa, kamar sauran al’ummomin ƙasashen Afirika, sun daɗe suna hulɗa da iskoki. Masana al’adun Hausawa kamar Greenberg (1946), Besmer (1973), Ibrahim (1982), Bunza (1990/2006), Ismaila (1991), da sauransu, sun tabbatar da cewa wannan hulɗa ta samo asali ne tun lokacin da Hausawa suke cikin addininsu na gargajiya. Bayyanar addinin Musulunci ta rage wa hulɗa da iskoki ƙarfi, duk da sanin cewa, bai ƙaryatar da hulɗar ba, sai dai wasu ayyukan da ke ciki ya yi hani. A ƙarni na 19 masu jihadi sun hasa wa bori da hulɗa da iskoki wuta sosai domin tsarkake imanin Hausawa Musulmai. Duk da haka, ba  su ƙaryata hulɗa da iskoki ba, sai dai hulɗa da su ta fuskar bori suka tsawata. A yau, goshin ƙarni na 21st  tattare da wayewar kai ta addini, da samun kimiyyar zamani, Hausawa sun buɗe wani sabon shafi na hulɗa da iskoki, wato “ruƙiyya”, wadda ta zo da sigar addini. Farkon shigowar ruƙiyya ta ɗaure wa 'yan kallo kai, ta saka saɓani tsakanin masana addini, waaɗansu suna sukar yanayin da ake aiwatar da ita. Wannan sukar, ta ƙara wa garin ruƙiyya nono, domin tun ana yin ta da shakku, har ta samu karɓuwa sosai a ƙasar Hausa da maƙwabtanta, musamman bayan samun ƙarin shigowar rubuce-rubuce da bayyanar hujjoji daga masana. Babban abin ban sha'awa shi ne, Hausawa sun fi kowace ƙabila a Nijeriya karɓar ruƙiyya hannu biyu da gudanar da ita a koyaushe. Ganin haka, wannan maƙalar za ta waiwayi tarihi da bin diddigin hanyoyin da ruƙiyya ta bi ta samu bunƙasa, har ta zama ruwan dare game duniya, musamman a wannan lokaci na ɗayanta Duniya.
2.0  Ma’anar Adabi:
      Masana sun tabbatar da cewa, adabi wani hoto ko madubi ne da ake iya hango al’ada, wato hikimomi da fasahar wata al’umma, da iri-iren abubuwan da take cuɗanya da su a rayuwarta, musamman ɓangarorin siyasa da tattalin arziki da zamantakewa da addini da sauransu. Ta la’akari da yanayin adabin Hausawa, masana sun kasa shi gida biyu: adabin gargajiya da na zamani. Adabin gargajiya shi ne adabin baka, wato fasaha da hikimomin da Hausawa suka gada kaka da kakanni. Shi kuwa adabin zamani shi ne rubutacce, wato ƙarin fasaha da hikimomin da Hausawa suka samu bayan sun iya karatu da rubutu, ko sun shaƙu da wasu al’ummomi. A wannna muƙala an yi amfani da kalmar adabi a matsayin aro, saboda fito da hikimomi da fasahar da ke ƙunshe a cikin rubuce-rubucen littattafan da aka rubuta cikin harsunan Larabci da Turanci da kuma Hausa, a kan sha’anin ruƙiyya da abubuwan da ta. ƙunsa.
3.0  Ma’anar Iskoki
          Iskoki, kalma ce mai nuna jam’i na iska, wadda ƙamusoshin Hausa zuwa Hausa, suka ba ta ma’ana kamar haka: Ƙamusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero, Kano, ya ba ta ma’anar ‘Mutanen ɓoye’. Shi kuwa Calvin Y. Garba, ya ba ta ma’anar ‘Rahwani, musamman na bori’[1]. Waɗannan ƙamusoshi sun bayar da ma’anar iska ne a matsayin kalma kawai, ba ma’ana ta ilimi ba. Bisa ga haka, ga abin da masana ke cewa:
Iskoki a wajen Bahaushe wasu halittu ne masu kama da mutane ta fuskar halittarsu, da surarsu, da ayyukkansu, da al’adunsu, da ɗabi’unsu, da harshensu, da siyasar rayuwarsu, da dai makamantansu. (Bunza, 2006:1)
A nan, Bunza yana son ya tabbatar da imanin Bahaushe dangane da iskoki  cewa, su ma halittu ne kamar mutane masu ayyuka da sunaye irin na mutane, amma kuma ba mutane ba ne. Wannan ne ya sa Hausawa suke kiran su ‘Mutantani’, wato sun yi kama da mutane amma ba mutane ba ne, don haka aka ciro sunansu daga ‘mutum’ ya koma ‘mutantani’ kamar mutum ba mutum ba, ko kuma a ce mutane-mutane hakanga.
          Masana sun tabbatar da cewa, ba Hausawa kaɗai ke kiran aljani da ma’anar iska ba. Akwai mutanen ƙasar Dahomey suna kiran aljani ‘Djo’ da ma’anar iska (Greenberg, 1946:28). Haka shi ma Ibrahim (1982:28), ya kawo sunayen wasu ƙabilu a Afirika ta Yamma da yadda suke kiran nasu iskokin. Misali, Ashanti suna kiran iskarsu ‘Abosomi’, Yarbawa kuwa nasu ‘Orisha’, Angas kuwa nasu ‘Jigwell’, Mutanen Bambara kuwa ‘Nyena’, Jukun, ‘Jo’, Barebari suna kiran nasu ‘Sunamma’ da sauransu. Duk ma’anar waɗannan kalmomi a nasu harshe shi ne ‘iska’. Wannan shi ya nuna cewa al’ummomin ƙasashen Afrika sun yi tarayya a kan sha’anin imani da mu’amula da iskoki. Haka kuma, suna kiran sa ‘iska’, saboda akwai dangantaka ta kama mai yawa tsakanin ‘iska’ a ma’ana ta farko da iskoki a ma’ana ta biyu kamar haka: iska – ba a ganinta, amma ana jin kaɗawarta, ko shigarta cikin jiki, ko shaƙawa don rayuwa. Haka su ma iskoki ba a ganinsu, amma suna shiga jikin mutane, har a ga illarsu ga gaɓar jiki ko jikin duka.  Iska – na iya kai wa wuri mai nisa cikin lokaci kaɗan. Haka su ma iskoki suna iya tafiya wuri mai nisa cikin lokaci kaɗan. Iska - jiki ne mai laushi wanda ke iya ratsa ko’ina ya shiga. Haka su ma iskoki jikinsu mai laushi ne ba kamar jikin mutane ba, shi ya sa suke iya shiga jikin mutane ta ko’ina. A fahimtata, ana iya kwatanta shigar iskoki a jikin mutane da misalin shigar ƙarfin wutar lantarki ga waya, wato current, idan an riƙa ta, ta ja mutum, ba tare da an ga wutar a fili ba.
          Bayan bayyanar Musulunci a ƙasar Hausa, Bahaushe ya fara amfani da sunaye irin su. Aljani, da Ira'izzai, da Jinnu, da Rafani, da Shaiɗani, da sauransu. Dalili kuwa shi ne, nassoshin littattafan addini, Alƙur'ani, da Hadisai, da sauran litattafan Furu'a, da Tauhidi, da Tafsiri da Adabi, da yawa sun zo da bayanin waɗannan sunayen. Tasirin Musulunci ya sa Bahaushe a yau, ya fi yawan amfani da sunan “Aljannu”  saboda yana da nason addini, ya rage yawan faɗar “Iskoki” saboda ya fi kusanci da bori da tsafi, sai a bakin bokaye, da 'yan bori, da manazata ko ɗaliban al'ada kawai. Don haka, wannan takarda za ta ci gaba da amfani da dukan sunayen guda biyu, wato “Aljannu” da “Iskoki”.
2.1  Matsayin Iskoki a Musulunci
          Addinin Musulunci ya tabbata da samuwar iskoki ga halittarsu. Yarda da samuwar halittar iskoki wajibi ne ga kowane Musulmi, ƙarƙashin imani da Gaibi. Ayoyin Al-Ƙur’ani da dama sun yi umurni da irin wannan imani.[2] 'Gaibi' kuwa shi ne, abin da ya faku, amma Ubangiji ya ba mu labarinsa cikin Alƙur,ani, ko ta hanyar ManzonSa (SAW).
          Dalilan samuwar Aljannu sun zo a cikin Alƙur’an da Sunnah. Daga cikinsu akwai Sura musamman da ke magana a kan aljannu, wato Suratul Jinn. Akwai kuma ayoyi daban-daban da ke magana a kansu.[3] Haka kuma kamar yadda aka samo daga Aisha (R.A) ta ce Manzon Allah (SAW) ya ce:
An halicci Mala’iku daga haske, kuma an halicci Iblis daga tsantsar garwashi daga wuta, kuma an halicci Adam (AS) daga abin da aka siffanta muku wato yumɓu. (fassarar mai bincike).
Iblis shi ne asali ko uba ga aljannu, kamar yadda Annabi Adam yake asali ko uba ga mutane. Hasanul Basari yana cewa:
 Aljani ɗan Iblis, Mutum kuma ɗan Adam. Daga cikin aljannu da mutane akwai na ƙwarai mumunai, kuma dukkansu sun  yi tarayya ne a wajen lada da azaba. Wanda duk ya kasnce mumini daga aljannu da mutane, to shi waliyin Allah ne. Wanda kuma ya kasance kafiri daga cikin aljannu  da mutane, to shi shaiɗani ne. (fassarar mai bincike).
          Wannan ya nuna cewa, daga cikin aljannu akwai na ƙwarai da miyagu, kamar yadda mutane suke, wato sun yi tarayya da ‘yan adam a wajen siffar hankali da fahinta da samun damar aikata alheri ko sharri. Daga cikinsu akwai mumunai da kafirai, kamar yadda Alƙur’ani ya tabbatar mana.[4]
          Waɗannan dalilai na ayoyin Alƙur’ani su suka tabbatar mana cewa, daga cikin aljannu akwai mumunai masu shiga aljanna da yardar Allah, haka kuma fajiransu da kafirai za su shiga wuta da adalcin Allah.
3.0 Ma’anar Ruƙiyya
          A Larabci kalmar  'ruƙiyya'  ta tsiro ne daga 'Ruƙa', jam'inta shi ne 'Ruƙiyya' , tilo kuwa a ce 'Ruƙ’ya', wadda ke nufin, yin tawada ko tofi ga maras lafiya.[5]
          A ra'ayin malamai kuwa, ga yadda masana ɗibbi suka yi mata madogara:
Iliyasu Muhammad Gummi yana cewa:
Ruƙiyyah na nufin amfani da wasu kalmomi ko lafuzza domin warkar da wani mutum da ya kamu da wata rashin lafiya.[6]
Bunza, (2000) yana cewa:
 Ruƙiyyah, addu'ar da akan yi wa maras lafiya da ake jin aljannu suka hau kansa.[7]
Karrafiy yana cewa rukiyya:
Ruƙiyya wasu laffuzza ne na musamman waɗanda in an yi ana samun waraka daga rashin lafiyoyi, amma duk abin da ake yi don cutarwa, to ba a ce masa ruƙiyya, sai dai sihiri.[8] (fassarar mai bincike)
          Bisa ga waɗannan ma'anoni, muna iya cewa, ruƙiyya addu’a ce, da dogara ga Allah domin samun waraka daga rashin lafiya iri-iri, musamman waɗanda suka shafi cutar iskoki. Ubangiji Allah na karɓar addu’ar mai addu’a idan ya kira shi.
Allah yana cewa:  
“Kuma Ubangiji ya ce, ku kira Ni in karɓa muku.”[9]
(fassarar Abubakar Mahmud Gummi).
Kuma Allah yana cewa:
“Kuma idan bayiNa suka tambaye Ka daga gare Ni, to lalle Ni makusanci ne. ina karɓa kiran mai kira idan ya kira Ni. Saboda haka, su nemi karɓawa ta, kuma su yi imani da Ni, tsammaninsu, su shiryu.”[10]  (Fassara Abubakar  Mahmud Gumi).
3.1  Rabe- Raben Ruƙiyya
          Imam Al- Kurɗabiy, ya ce ruƙiyya iri uku ce:
i)        Ruƙiyyar da ake yi lokacin jahiliyya (wato surƙulle), maras ma’ana,    wannan           wajibi ne a nesanci aikata ta, don gudun faɗawa cikin shirka. A kan wannan, Ibn Taimiyyah yana cewa:
                   Musulunci ya hana a yi tawada da abin da ba a san
ma’anarsa ba, don gudun kada ya kasance shirka ne. ( Al’ashƙar, 1989)    
ii)                Ruƙiyyar da ake yi da maganar Allah da kuma sunayensa. Wannan ta halatta a yi, domin faɗar Allah:
Kuma muna sassaukarwa, daga AlƘur'ani, abin da
yake waraka ne da rahma ga muminai……"[11] (Fassarar
Abubakar Mahmud Gummi).
Haka kuma Manzon Allah (SAW) yana cewa:
                   Na hore ku da yin amfani da masu waraka guda biyu,
                   (wato) Alƙur’ani da Zuma.”[12]
iii)             Ruƙiyyar da aka yi da wanin sunayen Allah, kamar a faɗi sunan wani babban sarki ko malami, ko waliyyi, ko amfani da hatimin Annabi Sulaiman (AS), ko kuma wani abin halitta maɗaukaki, kamar Al’arshi. Wannan ba wajibi ba ne, kuma ba ya daga ayyukan kwaɗaitarwa ga aikatawa, saboda haka barin sa ya fi.[13]
4.0  Tarihin Ruƙiyya da Yaɗuwarta a Ƙasar Hausa
          Malamai masu ruƙiyya sun tabbatar da cewa ruƙiyya ta samo asali ne daga Manzon Allah (S.A.W), domin kuwa shi ya yi ruƙiyya, kuma an yi an zo an ba shi labari kuma ya tabbatar. Ga wasu daga cikin hujjojin da suke bayarwa:
i)                   An karɓo daga Abi Ka’ab, ya ce: Na kasance a wurin Annabi (S.A.W), sai wani Balarabe ya zo da koken ɗansa baya da lafiya, yana fama da shan-Inna. Sai Annabi (S.A.W) ya ce, aje a kawo shi. Koda aka kawo shi, sai ya zaunar da shi, ya karanta masa Fatiha, da Ayatul kursiyyu da Falaƙi da Nasi, sai ya samu lafiya. (fassarar mai bincike).
ii)                       An karɓo daga Ibn Abbas cewa: wata mata ta je wajen Annabi (S.A.W) tare da ɗanta marar lafiya, mai hauka, ta ce Ya Rasulullahi wannan yaron yana damunmu da ta’adi da ɓarna, yana zubar mana da duk wani abu da ya gani, kuma yana farfasa mana duk wani muhimmin abu da ya gani. Sai Annabi (S.A.W) ya dafa ƙirjinsa ya yi tofi a ciki, kwai sai aka ga wani abu ya fito daga bakinsa (shi yaron) baƙi wuluk! Sai ya tashi ya sami sauƙi.(Al Imam Ahmad da Ɗabarani suka ruwaito wannan Hadisin). (fassarar mai bincike).
iii)                     Usman Ɗan Abil Asi ya ce lokacin da Annabi (SAW) ya tura ni a matsayin Gwamna a Ta’ifa sai na riƙa samun ruɗani da shakku a cikin sallolina da ibaduna. Shike nan  na je wurin Annabi (SAW) na kai kukana, sai Annabi (SAW) ya ce  'Ai wannan shaiɗan ne yake wasa da hankalinka. Matso  nan kusa da ni. Sai na matsa kusa da Annabi (SAW) sai ya dafa ƙirjina ya riƙe kaina yana dukan ƙirjina kuma ya yi tofi a cikin bakina yana cewa: fita maƙiyin Allah! Ka sani ni Annabin Allah ne! ya faɗi haka har sau uku, wato yana ce wa Aljanin ya fita daga jikinsa. Usman Ɗan Abil As  ya ce: 'Tun daga lokacin ban ƙara irin wanan matsalar ba'.[14]
Waɗannan bayanai suna nuna mana cewa lalle manzon Allah (SAW) ya yi Ruƙiyya, ya yi magana da aljani, ta bakin marar lafiya, kuma ya yi masa duka.
4.1   Rubuce-Rubucen Magabata
          Haka kuma, bincike ya nuna cewa daga cikin malamai magabata 'Ahlus Sunna Waljama’ah’, su ma sun yi ruƙiyya. 'Ahlus Sunna Wal Jama’ah’, su ne ɓangaren malaman Sunna, masu ƙoƙarin kare aƙidar Musulunci daga bidi’o’i, suna kuma girmama ko fifita “Nassi” bisa ga hankali. Saɓanin sauran ɗariku kamar Mu’tazilawa, Khawarij, Shi’ah da sauransu. 'Ahlus Sunna sun haɗa da Mazhabobin Imam Malik, Shafi’i, Abu Hanifa da Ahmad bin Hambali, da kuma Mazhabobin aƙidun Tauhidi, kamar Ash’ ariyya da sauransu.[15]
             Daga cikin Malaman Ahlus-Sunna Wal Jama’ah, da suka shahara a kan harkar ruƙiyya, cikin magabata (Salaf), Kuma waɗanda suka yi rubuce-rubuce a kan ruƙiyya akwai:
-         Imam Abdurrahman As-Suyuɗiy
-         Imam Ahmad Bin Hambali
-         Shehun Musulunci, kuma Malamin Al'umma Ibn Taimiyya
-         Ibn Ƙayyum
-         Abdul Faraj Ibn Al-Jauziy, da sauransu.
Waɗannan magabata sun yi ruƙiyya a aikace, kuma sun yi rubuce-rubuce da yawa a kan matsalolin ruƙiyya a zamaninsu.[16]
4.2  Gudunmuwar Ƙasar Saudi Arabiyya
          Gwamnatin Saudi Arabiyya ta kafa wata Hukuma mai ƙarfi kan Binciken Ilimi da Fatawa da Wa’azi da Shiryarwa, wadda Shaikh Abdul Aziz Bin Abdullahi Bin Baz ke shugabanta. Wannan Hukuma, ta yi ta amsa fatawar halaccin yin ruƙiyya da matsayinta a Shari’a, kuma duk abin da aka wallafa daga Hukumar, ba sayar da shi ake yi ba, ana watsa shi cikin duniya, da rarrabawa wurin aikin Haji kyauta. Haka kuma, fatawowin da Malamin zamani Masanin Hadisi, Shaikh Nasiruddeen Albaniy ke bayarwa ana wallafawa, kan sha’anin ruƙiyya, shi ma ya ƙara kawo haɓaka da watsuwar ruƙiyya a ko’ina cikin ƙasashen Musulmi.
4.3  Ruƙiyya A Rubuce-Rubucen Malaman Zamani
Bayan da waɗannan magabata suka wuce, an samu zamani mai tsawo, musamman a nan ƙasashen Afrika, ‘yan bori da bokaye da malaman tsibbu, suka yi ta cin karensu ba babbaka a kan sha’anin warkar da marasa lafiyar cutar iskokai. Sai a wannan ƙarni (Goshin ƙarni na ashirin da ɗaya) ruƙiyya ta sake danno kai, ta hanyoyi kamar haka:
4.3.1          Littafan Da Aka Rubuta Cikin Harshen Larabci
       An sake samun marubuta a wannan zamani da suka jaddada rubuce-rubuce da aiwatar da ruƙiyya, kuma waɗannan rubuce-rubucen, sun watsu a duniya kuma sun taimaka wajen ƙarfafa bincike mai zurfi a kan gano gaskiyar abubuwan da suke bayani a cikin littattafansu. Misalan littattafan
-Wiƙayatul Insaan Minal Jinni Wash-Shaiɗan
- Assarimul Battar Fit-tasadi lis-Sihiril Ashrar
Waɗannan littattafai na wani Shaihin malami mai suna: Shaikh Wahid Al-Bali, sun samu  shiga lungu-lungu na ƙasashen Musulmi ko’ina cikin duniya, har a nan ƙasar Hausa da maƙwabtanta. Kafin ma a samu isowar littattafan, har a fayafayen rikoda aka ɗauke su, ana sayarwa wajen aikin Hajji da Umrah. Waɗannan fayafayen rikoda, misali, da su aka fara binciken ruƙiyya a Sakkwato.[17]
           Daga baya, an ci gaba da samun littattafan Larabci suna shigowa da yawa, kuma cikin sauƙin kuɗi da rahusa, kuma da sauƙin fahimta. Ga kaɗan daga cikin misalan ire-iren waɗanan littattfan:
S/N
SUNAN LITTAFI
SUNAN MARUBUCI
SHEKARAR WALLAFA
     1.             
Alimus Sihiri Wash-sha’awazah
Dr Sulaiman Al’ashƙar
1989
     2.             
Arradul Mubin…
Ibrahim Abdul-Alim Abdul-Wahab
1999
     3.             
Alminhajil Ƙur’aniy Fi Ilajis Sihir Wal Massis Shaiɗaniy
Al’iwadiy, U.M
1989
     4.             
Akamul Murjan Fi Ahkamul Jaan
Asshabli, A.B
1985
     5.             
Aɗɗurukul Hisan Fi Ilajil Amradil Jann
Khalil I. A
1992
     6.             
Alwiƙayati Wal’ilaji bil Kitabi Wassunnah
Abdul’aziz Muhammad Bin Shayi’i
1994
     7.             
Addawa’ul Ƙur’ani Liljinni Wal Massis Shaiɗani
Aliyullahi bin Aliyu Abulwafah
2000
     8.             
Kaifa Tu’aliju Mardaka Bir Ruƙyatil Shar’iyyah
Abdullahi bin Muhammad As-Sidhan
1422
     9.             
Sara’al Jaan Li banil Insaan
Abdullahi Nuwara
1997

Da sauransu.



4.3.2               Littafan Da Aka Rubuta Cikin Harshen Turanci
                 Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata, ruƙiyya ta zama ruwan dare a duniya yau. Ta shiga kowane saƙo da lungu da nahiya. Saboda haka, kasancewar turanci abu ne da masu amfani da shi ke mulkin Duniya, ba mamaki a samu  littattafan Turanci da aka rubuta a kan sha’anin ruƙiyya. Wasu littattafan na Larabci ne, amma saboda ana son saƙon ya isa ga Turawa, sai aka fassara su da Turanci. Ga misalan kaɗan daga cikin littafan ruƙiyya na Turanci:
S/N
SUNAN LITTAFI
SUNAN MARUBUCI
SHEKARAR WALLAFA
     1.             
The Excorsist Tradition in Islam
Philips, A.A.B
1997
     2.             
Prayer and Healing in Islam
Salih Yucel
2010
     3.             
Prayer, Medicine and Science: The New Dialogue
Larry Dossey
1998
     4.             
Man’s Protection Against Jinn and Satan
Fassarar:
Haytham Kreidly
2006
     5.             
The Cutting Edge How to Face Evil Sorcerers
Fassarar:
Haytham Kreidly 
2006
     6.             
Healing With the Medicine of the Prohpet
Fassarar:
Jalal Abual Rub
1999
     7.             
Preventive Measures Against Shaytan and Authentic Ruƙƙah According to the Shari’ah
Fassarar:
Binta Manzur Elahi Bhatti
2008
     8.             
The Rules and Etiquettes of Ruƙuah
Shaikh Saalih bin Abdil’azeez Aali Skaihk
2008
     9.             
The Jinn and Human Sckness, Remedies in the Light of the Qur’an and Sunnah
Abul’ Mundhir khaleel bin Ibrahim
2005

4.3.3               Littafan Da Aka Rubuta Cikin Harshen Hausa
      Hausawa suna cikin ƙabilun suke aiwatar da ruƙiyya sosai a nan Afrika. Saboda haka, ba mamaki a samu littafan aka rubuta da Hausa, ko aka fassara zuwa Hausa. Ga misalin kaɗan daga cikinsu:      
S/N
SUNAN LITTAFI
SUNAN MARUBUCI
SHEKARAR WALLAFA
     1.             
Garkuwan ɗan Adam Daga Sharrin Shaiɗanu   da           Matsafa
Yahaya Chedi Fagge
Babu shekara
     2.             
Fitar da Aljani Daga KJikin ɗan Adam ta Hanyar Alƙur’ani (Ruƙiyya)
Abdullahi Idris Muhammad
Babu shekara
     3.             
Amfanin Man Zaitun goda 50 ga Ɗan Adam
Ibrahim A. Fagge
Babu shekara
     4.             
Hanyoyin Waraka Daga cutar Aljannuda Sammu
Mahmud A.M
Babu shekara
     5.             
Hanyoyin gane Sihiri da Warware Shi
Mahmud A.M.
1997
     6.             
Muhimman Bayanai a Kan Asiran Aljannu
Umar faruk Sulaiman
2000
     7.             
Fassarar ‘Bayyanar da gaskiya a kan Shigar Aljani Cikin Jikin Mutum da raddi ga wanda Ya Yi Musu’ Na Bin Baz
Umar faruk Sulaiman
2000
     8.             
Maganin Kowace Irin Cuta
Zakariyya M.N. Zaria
1997
     9.             
Alaƙar Aljannu da Ɗan Adam
Muhammad S.U. Umar da Mijinyawa A.M
Babu shekara

4.3.4          Shirya Tarukan Kara Wa Juna Sani
          A nan gida Nijeriya, lokacin da sha'anin ruƙiyya ya bayyana, an samu saɓanin ra’ayoyi tsakanin ‘ya‘yan Ƙungiyar ‘Izalatul Bidi’a Wa Iƙamatus Sunnah’, wato Ƙungiyar da ke ƙoƙarin tsayar da Sunnah da gusar da bidi’o’i cikin ibada, (waɗanda aka fi sani da suna ‘Yan Izala). Wasu daga cikinsu sun fahinci hujjojin da aka bayar, kuma sun ci gaba da aikatawa. Wasu ɓangaren kuwa sukan yi inkarin cewa, ta halatta a yi. Bisa ga wannan an yi ta shirya tarurrukan wa’azi da na ƙara wa juna sani, da sa-in-sa a kan sha’anin ruƙiyya. Misali, A wani gari da ake kira Sahorame cikin Jihar Nija, an shirya wata muƙabila tsakanin Ƙungiyar Izar Jos da ta Kaduna,  a ranar Litinin 3 ga Maris zuwa Juma’a 6 ga Maris 1998. Akwai  fayafayen bidiyo guda tara (9) da suke ƙunshe da wannan muƙabila. Waɗannan muƙabiloli da ake ta yi, ana ɗauka ga fayafayen bidiyo da rekoda, ya taimaka ƙwarai ga ƙara yaɗuwar ruƙiyya ko’ina cikin Nijeriya, da ma wajen Nijeriya nan maƙwabta, kamar a ƙasar Nijar, Mali, Ghana, Kamaru da sauransu.
          Haka su ma a ɓangaren Jami’o’i, an gabatar da tarurrukan ƙara wa juna sani a kan sha’anin ruƙiyya, musamman Jami’ar Bayero Kano. Misali, an shirya babban taron ƙara wa juna sani na shida (6) kan al’amarin ruƙiyya, a inda Shaihin Malami Aliyu Muhammad Bunza, ya gabatar da muƙala mai taken: “Magana da Iskoki Ta Bakin Dokinsu”. An shirya taron a tsohuwar harabar Jami’ar, a ranakkun Litinin 13 zuwa Laraba 15 ga Disamba, 2004.
          Haka kuma, an sake shirya wani taron muhawarar da aka gabatar, tsakanin Shaikh Yusuf Ali Kano da Taha Adamu (Baba Impossible) da kuma Aliyu Muhammad Bunza, a kan sha’anin ruƙiyya, ɗakin taro na Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriaya, Jami’ar Bayero Kano, ranar 19 Maris, 2005, inda aka saka marigayi Shaikh Ja’afar Adam da Shaikh Ibrahim Khalil suka yi alƙalancin muhawarar. Bayan an tashi daga muhawarar, jama’a sun gamsu ƙwarai da gaske, a kan sha’anin ruƙiyya. Haka kuma, a babban Asibitin Kula da Masu Taɓin Hankali ta Ƙasa da Ke Kware, a jihar Sakkwato, as shirya taro mai taken: “Occupational Psychotherapy”, a Agustan 1999, inda aka tattauna a kan sha’anin fitar da aljani a jikin mutum ta hanyoyi daban-daban, ciki har da ruƙiyya.  
4.3.5    Kundayen Bincike a Kan Ruƙiyya
          An ci gaba da zurfafa bincike a kan sha’anin ruƙiyya a ƙasar Hausa da ma wasu ƙasashe. Misali, a Turai, an samu wani ɗalibi mai suna Philips A.A. B. (1996), ya gabatar da digirin digirgir (PhD), wanda daga baya aka wallafa shi,  mai suna: The Exorcist Tradition in Islam, a Kwalejin St. David, a jami’ar Wales ta ƙasar Turai.
          A nan gida Nijeriya, lokacin ana cikin tattaunawa mai zafi a kan sha’anin ruƙiyya, an samu wani ɗalibi mai suna Yakubu Aliyu Gobir, (a Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo Sakkwato), ya yi bincike mai zurfi a babban digirin Hausa (M.A) a kan lamarin ruƙiyya, mai taken: “Iskoki a Idon ‘Yan bori da Masu Ruƙiyya”, a shekarar 2002. Ya kuma sake dawowa a shekarar 2012, a inda ya zurfafa bincike a matakin  digirin digirgir (PhD) mai taken: “Tasiri Iskoki a Cutuka da Magungunan Hausawa”. Har ila yau, yanzu haka a Jami’ar ta Danfodiyo akwai ɗalibi a Sashen Nazarin Addinin Musulunci yana gudanar aikin bincike mai taken: “Ralationship Between Man and Jinn in Islam”. Aikin na nan ana gudanar da binciken, ba a ƙare ba.     

4.3.6 Kakkafa Ƙungiyoyi da Cibiyoyin Gudanar da Ruƙiyya
A ƙasar Hausa da kewayenta an kakkafa ƙungiyoyi da cibiyoyi inda ake gudanar da ruƙiyya. Misali, a Sakkwato, akwai ƙungiyar masu ruƙiyya, ƙarƙashin shugabancin Malam Iliyasu Muhammad Gummi. Haka kuma, an kakkafa cibiyoyi masu gudanar da ruƙiyya, kamar yadda ake gudanar da su a ƙasashen Larabawa da ma Turawa. Waɗannan cibiyoyin, sun ɗauki sigar asibitocin zamani na Nasara wajen aiwatar da su. Suna buɗa rijista ta karɓar maras lafiya, suna ba da irin katin asibiti na ganin Likita da lokacin ganin Likita da sauransu. A waɗannan cibiyoyin, za a tarar da jama’a cikin layi sun yi dafifi, suna jiran su kai ga ganin Likita (malamin Ruƙiyya). Ga kaɗan daga cikin waɗannan cibiyoyin:
S/N
SUNA
JIHA/GARI
     1.             
Ɗanfodiyo Islamic Centre
Kano, Gummel, Adamawa, Birnin Kebbi, Gombe, Jigawa/Dutse, Katsina, Legas, Sakkwato, Zamfara
     2.             
Albarka Islamic Medicine
Katsina
     3.             
Alhuda Medical Cetre
Sakkwato
     4.             
Ar-Riyad Islamic Medicine
Katsina
     5.             
Centre for Atta’awun Herbals and Islamic Health
Kaduna
     6.             
Dalala Islamic Medicine
Katsina
     7.             
Gidan Zuma
Zariya
     8.             
Hidaya Islamic Chemist
Kaduna /Giwa
     9.             
Hilal Islamic Chemist
Katsina
 10.             
Himma Islamic Medicine
Zamfara/
Gusau
 11.             
Ibn Sina Islamic Medicine
Katsina, Kano
 12.             
Markaz Alyusra Islamic Chemist
Kano
 13.             
Natural Medicine Nigeria Limited
Zariya
 14.             
Shaikh Ibrahim Khalil Herbal Health
Kano
 15.             
Shifa’ul Qur’an
Kano
 16.             
Tasneem Herbal Stores and General Enterprises
Sakkwato
         
Haka kuma, waɗannan cibiyoyin, sukan buɗa shagon sayar da haɗaɗɗun magungunan cutukan iskoki daban-daban. Bayan an yi wa maras lafiya ruƙiyya, sai kuma ya sai haɗaɗɗun magungunan da zai riƙa amfani da su. Haka kuma, a ɗakin muhallin da ake yin ruƙiyya a waɗannan cibiyoyin, akwai na’urorin zamani na ɗaukar magana da ƙarin sauti da na’ura mai ƙwaƙwalwa, da sauransu.
          Waɗannan cibiyoyin suna taimakawa ƙwarai, wajen yaƙi da cutukan jiki da ƙwaƙwalwa, kuma sai ƙara haɓaka suke yi, saboda kulawa da kiyon lafiya da Bahaushe ke yi. Haka kuma, cibiyoyin sun zama wata hanya ta samar da harkar yi da bunƙasa tattalin arziki, musamman ganin yadda masu cibiyoyin ke ta buɗe rassa a manyan garuruwa a cikin Nijeriya da maƙwabta.
          Bayan waɗannan cibiyoyi, akwai ɗaiɗaikun shahararrun malamai da suke aiwatar da ruƙiyya a gidajensu ko a wani muhalli da suka keɓe, ba tare da sun ayyana masa wani suna ba. Misali, a Sakkwato, akwai Malam Iliyasu Gummi, wanda ke zaune a unguwar Lowcost, layin G, a nan gidansa yake gudanar da ruƙiyya. A Kano akwai Shaikh Yusuf Ali, a Zariya akwai gidan Zuma, a Gusau (Zamfara) akwai Malam Abdulkarim bakin kasuwar Gusau, da dai sauran malaman da, wannan muƙala ba ta kai ga gano sunayensu ba, saboda wasu a ɓoye suke aiwatar da harkar ruƙiyya, wanda shi ne asalin yadda aka so a yi ta a Musulunci, kamar yadda wasu malamai suka yi bayani[18].

4.3.7        Ruƙiyya A Kafofin Yaɗa Labarai
          Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata, farkon shigowar ruƙiyya an samu sa-in-sa da muhawurori a kan haliccin yadda ake gudanar da ita. Wannan ya haifar da kafofin watsa labarai shigowa su taka tasu rawa. Misali, gidan radiyon Rima, ya gabatar da wani shirin mako-mako, mai suna: “Cikin Ƙira Ake Ɗaɗi”, inda suka gabatar da ra’yoyin malaman addinin Musulunci da likitocin asibiti a kan sha’anin ruƙiyya. Haka kuma, cibiyoyin da aka yi bayani a baya, suna gabatar da shirin kiyon lafiya a gidajen rediyo da FM, musamman na jihohin Sakkwato da Kano da Kaduna da Zariya da sauran manyan garuruwan ƙasar Hausa. Waɗannan shiraruwan, su masun taka rawa wajen haɓaka sha’anin ruƙiyya.
          Haka kuma, akwai tasoshin talabijin da ake yaɗa ayyukan ruƙiyya. Misali, akwai Tashar Talabijin mai suna: “Alhaƙiƙa”  a Layin Dish na Nilesat, ba abin da ake yi awa ashirin da huɗu (24 hours) sai gudanar da ruƙiyya aikace, da gabatar da bayanai da shirin ‘amsa-kira-nan-take’, inda ake bugo waya daga sassan duniya daban-daban, ana tambayoyi a kan sha’anin ruƙiyya suna karɓa wa masu bugo waya kai tsaye. Akwai kuma Tashar “Sunnah T.V”, suna gabatar da shirin “Magungunan Musulunci”, wanda a ciki suna gabatar da matsalolin gudanar da ruƙiyya. Haka kuma, a cikin Jaridar Aminiya,  akwai filin da ake gabatar da “Duniyar Aljannu”, A halin yanzu, yana wuya a iya ƙirga kafofin yaɗa labarai da ke gudanar da sha’anin ruƙiya, ciki da wajen Nijeriya.
4.3.8        Ruƙiyya a Wasan Kwaikwaiyo da ‘Yan Damfara
          Haɓakar ruƙiyya da samun karɓuwar ta ga jama’a, su suka haifar da shigar masu Wasan kwaikwayo, suna kwaikwayon yadda ake ruƙiyya da halayen masu ruƙiyya ko waɗanda ake yi wa ruƙiyya, ko a kwaikwayi halayyar bayyanar aljani, a lokacin da ake ruɗiyya. Misali, akwai ɗan wasan nan da ake kira ‘Ibro’, sun yi kwaikwayon yadda ake ruƙiyya da shi da ‘Ciroki’.  Suna kwaikwayon wasu ɗabi’u ko halayen masu ruƙiyya da kuma hannunka-mai sanda, da manufar a gyara. Da yake a cikin kowane al’amari ana samun ɓata-gari, masu kawo cikas ga al’amarin.
          Haka kuma, ‘yan damfara suna laɓewa ƙarƙashin yanayin hulɗa da aljannu suna cutar jama’a. Saboda sabawa da jin maganar aljanu da masu ruƙiyya ke ɗauka a na’urar magana, shi ya ba ’yan damfara damar bugo waya ga wasu jama’a, su ce wai aljani ne ke magana da su, yana son ya taimake su. Wannan al’amari ya zama ruwan dare a ƙasar Hausa a yau. Har akan samu kafafen watsa labarai suna ruwaito irin wannan damfarar da aka yi wasu. Misali, Sashen Hausa na Rediyon Muryar Amurka yana gabatar da wani shiri mai suna: “Ciki da Gaskiya…”, inda suke ruwaito labarai da muryoyin aljanun damfara, da kuma yadda ta kaya da su. Haka kuma, jaridar Aminiya takan ɗauko ire-iren waɗannan labaran. Ga wani misali daga Aminiya ta satin 09/11/2012:

Mai Damfara da Cewa Shi Aljani ne Ya Shiga Hannu’
Wani mutum da ake zargi da zamba cikin aminci mai suna Yusuf Abdullahi Ɗan Fulani ya faɗa hannu a daidai lokacin da yake ƙoƙarin amsar Naira miliyan ɗaya daga wajen wani wanda ya riƙa damfara… Al’amarin dai ya faru ne a lokacin da wanda aka yi wa damfarar mai suna Ibrahim Sharif, wanda ke zaune a garin Bwari da ke yankin babban birnin tarayya Abuja, ya ji an bugo masa waya makonni biyu kafin Sallah babba da ta gabata, inda ɗan damfarar ya yi masa sallama tare da sanar da shi cewa, “ka yi wa Allah godiya saboda zan gabatar maka da wani saƙo daga wajen Allah wanda Ya halicce ku bil’adama da kuma mu aljanu. Ka je kasuwa ka sayi abun sadaka ka bai wa almajirai kafin in sake bugo maka waya don sanar da kai tarin alherin da zai same ka, sannan kuma ka kame bakinka, kada ka sanar da kowa…”[19]
          Bincike ya tabbatar da cewa, waɗannan ’yan damfara suna da hanyoyin da suke neman lambar wayar mutane masu hali. Wani lokaci suna amfani da ’yan kore, kamar yadda bokaye ke yi. Haka kuma, sukan samu lambar waya ta hannun wanda suka yi damfara suka ci nasara. Kamar yadda suka nemi wani mutum a Sakkwato da ya ba su lambobi waya da sunayen mutane biyar masu hali da kuma sunayen mutane biyar matalauta, don su taimake su.[20] Wani lokaci kuma kawai kirdado ne suke yi sai faɗuwa ta zo daidai da zama.
5.0  Naɗewa
                 Tirƙashi!, Hausawa kan ce, ‘in ka ji ƙi-gudu, sa-gudu ne bai zo ba. Ruƙiyya a ƙasar Hausa da maƙwabtanta, ta zama ‘hankaka mai da ƙwan wani naki’.  Baƙo ya mamaye gida. Haɓakar ruƙiyya ta dushe hasken bori da girka a ƙasar Hausa. Irin yadda kasuwar masu ruƙiyya ke ci gadan-gadan, a wannan ƙarni, a nan ƙasar Hausa da ƙasashen Larabawa da na Turai, ya tabbatar da hasashen cewa, iskoki suna taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen samar da cutuka a rayuwar ɗan Adam. Masana da dama da ɗalibansu sun yi rubuce-rubuce a kan lamarin ruƙiyya, musamman a cikin Larabci da Turanci da kuma Hausa. Waɗannan rubuce-rubucen,  tare da gudunmuwar kafofin yaɗa labarai, sun taimaka wajen haɓakar ruƙiyya da yaɗuwarta ko’ina, ta zama ruwan dare game duniya, musamman a wannan lokaci na Ɗayanta Duniya. Haka kuma, ruƙiyya ta zama wata hanya ta dogaro da kai, saboda an riƙe ta a matsayin sana’a.
S    Shawarwari
                 Kasancewar ruƙiyya wani sabon ilimin da ya samu rubuce-rubuce cikin harshen Larabci da Turanci da kuma Hausa, akwai bukatar:
1.                 Saka ruƙiyya (ruƙya) a cikin Manhajar karatun Hausa, tun daga Sakandare.
2.                 Masana na hukuma kom masu zaman kansu, su buɗe yanar gizo (intrrnet) a kan sha’anin ruƙiyya, domin sauƙaƙa bincike.
3.                 Jami’o’i su samu haɗin guiwa da wasu Cibiyoyin bincike don kiran taron ƙara wa juna sani na duniya a kan sha’anin ruƙiyya.
4.                 Hukuma ta buɗe ma’aikata ta musamman a kan Magungunan Gargajiya, ƙarƙashin Ma’aikatar Kiyon Lafiya.
5.                 Asibitocinmu su buɗe ɓangaren Ruƙiyya a Sashen kula Ƙwaƙwalwa, domin faɗaɗa bincike.
 
MANAZARTA
Abul-Mundhir, K.I.A. (2005), The Jinn and Human Sickness: Remedies in the Light of the Qur’aan and Sunnah. An English translation of Atturuƙul Hisaan Fi Ilaji Amraad Al-Jinn. Darussalam, Jiddah.

Al’ashƙar, U.S. (1989), Alimus Sihiri Was Sha’awazah: Ƙudus: Darun Nafa’is.

Al-Jauziyah, I. I. (1999) Healing With the Medicine of the Prophet (SAW). Fassarar Turanci daga Jalal Abual Rub. Riyadh, Saudiyya: Darussalam.

Bunza, A.M. (1995), Magungunan Hausa A Rubuce.” Kundin digiri na uku (PhD) Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya. Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.

Bunza, A.M. (2006), “BORUƘIYYA: Tazarar Bori da Ruƙiyya A idon Manazarta”. Takardar da aka gabatar a taron tattaunawa da qara wa juna sani na musamman da Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya Jami'ar Bayaro, Kano ta shirya kan "Bori" da "Ruƙiyya", ranar 19 ga Maris, 2005, a babban ɗakin taro na Jami'ar.

Bunza, A.M. (2006) Gadon Feɗe Al’ada : Lagos: IBRASH LTD.

C.N.H.N (2006) Ƙamusun Hausa, Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya. Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.

Gobir, Y.A (2002) “Iskoki a Idon ’Yan bori da Masu Ruƙiyya”. Kundin digiri na    biyu M.A), Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya. Sakkwato: Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo.

Gobir, Y.A (2010) “Hulɗar Soyayya Tsakanin Ɗan Adam da Iska”. Cikin     KONJOLLS: Kontagora Journal of Languages and Literatures. Kontagora: FCT.

Gobir, Y.A (2012) “Tasirin Iskoki Ga Cutuka da Magungunan Hausawa”. Kundin digiri na uku (PhD), Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya. Sakkwato: Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo.

Greenberg, J. (1946), The influence of Islam Sudanese Religion. Monographs of the American Ethnological society. London : 10, New York Seattle.

Ibrahim A. Abdu Alim (1999), "Arraddul Mubin Ala Bidi'il Mu'alijina Wa as'ilatil Ha'irina Fi Majalil Massi Was Sihiri Wa alaƙatihi Biɗ ɗibbi Wad din". Misra (Egypt):  Darul Bayan.
         
Ibrahim, S.M. (1982), “Dangantakar Al’ada da Addini: Tasirin Musulunci    Kanm Hausawa”   Kundin Digiri Na Biyu Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya. Kano: Jami’ar Bayero.

Isma’ila, H.A. (1981), “Islamic Medicine and Its Influence on Traditional     Hausa Practitioners in Northern Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis. Wisconsin: Madison University.
Rodney, M.C. (1970) Sociology of Medicine. McGraw-Hill Book company, New York.

Sa’eed, A.M.A. (2005) The Evil Eye. Lagos: Minaeret Books International. Nigeria.

Wahid, A.B. (1988), Wiƙãyatul Insãn Minal Jinn Was Shaiɗãn. Misra (Egypt): Darul Bashir.

Wall, L. (1988) Hausa Medicine: Illness and Well-Being In a West African Culture. Durhma: NC Duke Univeristy Press.

’Yanɗaki, A. I. (1990) “A History of the Izala Movement in Northern Nigeria up to 1989”. M.A. Thesis, Department of History. Sokoto: Usmanu Danfodiyo University.

Zakariyya, M.N.Z. (1997), Maganin Kowace Irin Cuta. Littafi na ɗaya. Kaduna: Kamfanin Alkauthar.


[1] Dubi Calvin Y. Garba (1990) “Kamus na Harshen Hausa” Evans Brothers (Nigeria Published Ltd) shafi        na 75.
[2] Dubi Alkur’ani sura 2:aya 3.
[3] Dubi Alkur’ani sura 46:aya29, sura 6:130, sura 55:33, da sauransu.
[4] Dubi Alkur’ani Sura ta 7 Aya 38 da 179, Sura 72.
[5] Dubi Ƙamus na Almu'jamul Wasiɗ, Juz'i na 1, shafi na 367.
[6] Hira da Malam Iliyasu Muhammad Gummi, mataimakin Shugaban Ƙungiyar masu ruƙiyyah Jihar Sakkwato, a gidansa da ke shiyar Low Cost No. 4G. Ranar 29/08/2000.
[7] Dubi Bunza, A.M (2000) "Muhallin Hankali Da Bagiren Hauka A Hausance", Muƙala cikin Mujallar Hausa Studies, 2.2: Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeiya, Jami'ar Usmanu Ɗan Fodiyo, Sakkwato. Shafi na 129.
[8] Dubi Umar S. Al'ashƙar (1989) “Alimus sihir was- sha’awazah" Darul Nafas Ƙudus shafi na 202..
[9] Dubi Sura Al- Gafir, Aya ta 70.
[10] Dubi Sura Al-Bakara, Aya ta 186
[11] Dubi Sura Al-Isra’I, aya ta 82.
[12] Dubi Zakariyya, M.M Zariya (1997) “Maganin kowace irin cuta”. Na Daya. Kamfaminin Alkausar, Kaduna. Shafi na 8.
[13] Dubi Usamah M. A’iwadiy (babu shekara) “Alminhajil Kur'ani fi Ilajis sihir Wal massish- shaidan” Darul Kalimatut tayyib. Shafi na 227.
[14]  Abdullahi Idris Muhammad (babu shekara) “Fitar da aljani daga jikin dan Adam ta hanyar Alkur’ani (rukiyya)” Danfadiyo Islamic Health Centre, Dorayi karama, Kano. Shafi na 13-17
[15] Umar Muhammad Bagarawa, "Hira da muka yi da shi a gidansa bayan Emir Yahaya Road, Sakkwato, 12/11/2000.
[16] Don Karin bayani, dubi lamba 26, shafi na 231-237.
[17] Hira da Malam Iliyasu Muhammad Gummi, mataimakin Shugaban Ƙungiyar masu ruƙiyyah Jihar Sakkwato, a gidansa da ke shiyar Low Cost No. 4G. Ranar 29/08/2000.
[18] Marigayi Shaikh Ja’afar ya faɗa a cikin jawabinsa na alƙalancin muhawarar da aka gabatar, tsakanin Malam Mahmud Kano da Malam Taha Adamu (Baba Impossible),a kan sha’anin Ruƙiyya, ɗakin taro na Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriaya, Jami’ar Bayero Kano, ranar 19 Maris, 2005.
[19] Jaridar Aminiya, Juma’a 9 ga Nuwamba, 2012. Shafi na 4.
[20] Sashen Hausa, Rediyon Muryar Amurka, cikin Shirin ‘Ciki da Gaskiya...’ Ranar Litinin 17/06/2013.

No comments:

Post a Comment