A Doctor of African Cultures (Hausa)

Sunday, January 13, 2019

Najasa A Mahad’in Maganin Iska




Nazarin hikimomin al’adun Hausawa da harshensu a kullum ƙara bunƙasa yake yi.  Lamarin iskoki abu ne da ya mamaye al’adun Bahaushe a rayuwarsa. Bahaushe na ganin iskoki wasu halittu ne masu ƙima da daraja ta musamman, da jin cewa suna iya cuta masa a rayuwa. A tunaninsa, cutukan da iskoki ke haddasawa su ne manyan cutuka, domin suna naƙasa rayuwa kuma suna da wuyar magani. Duk da samun wayewar kai da bunƙasar kimiyyar zamani, Bahaushe bai yarda akwai maganin iskoki a asibitocin nasara ba, ya fi son ya tunkari matsalar a Bahaushiyar al’ada. Najasa na ɗaya daga cikin hanyoyin al’ada da Bahaushe ke bi wajen warkar da cutar iskoki. Nazarin yadda Bahaushe ke amfani da najasa wajen sarrafa maganin iska shi ne maƙasudin wannan muƙalar.

Najasa A Mahad’in Maganin Iska


Yakubu Aliyu Gobir
Department of Nigerian Languages
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
08035605024


1.0       Gabatarwa
Nazarin hikimomin al’adun Hausawa da harshensu a kullum ƙara bunƙasa yake yi.  Lamarin iskoki abu ne da ya mamaye al’adun Bahaushe a rayuwarsa. Bahaushe na ganin iskoki wasu halittu ne masu ƙima da daraja ta musamman, da jin cewa suna iya cuta masa a rayuwa. A tunaninsa, cutukan da iskoki ke haddasawa su ne manyan cutuka, domin suna naƙasa rayuwa kuma suna da wuyar magani. Duk da samun wayewar kai da bunƙasar kimiyyar zamani, Bahaushe bai yarda akwai maganin iskoki a asibitocin nasara ba, ya fi son ya tunkari matsalar a Bahaushiyar al’ada. Najasa na ɗaya daga cikin hanyoyin al’ada da Bahaushe ke bi wajen warkar da cutar iskoki. Nazarin yadda Bahaushe ke amfani da najasa wajen sarrafa maganin iska shi ne maƙasudin wannan muƙalar.

2.0 Ma’anar Magani
A ƙarƙashin kiwon lafiya, kalmar magani sananniya ce ga kowane Bahaushe. Wasu masana, sun yi hasashen cewa, kalmar ba ta rasa nasaba da kalmar ‘gwaji, wato a gwada abu a ga ko zai yi. Suna ganin kalmar ‘hatsin bara’ ce, wato haɗe-haɗen kalmomi ne na Hausa suka samar da ita. Kalmomin su ne: “ma” da “yi” da kalmar “gani”.  Idan Bahaushe ya sami wata cuta ko rashin lafiyar da yake son kawar wa, sai ya sami ’yan ganyeyyikinsa da saiwowi ya harhaɗa ya ce: “Ma gwada wannan mu gani”, har dai kalmar ta koma: “ma yi wannan mu gani”. Daga baya ta koma, “ma yi ma gani”, har ya zuwa kalmar ta koma: “magani”, ma’ana, bari mu yi ma gani (Bunza:135).
Dangane da ƙunshiyar ma’anar kalmar magani, masana da ɗaliban nazarin al’adun Hausawa sun sha ɗauki-ba-daɗi kan haƙiƙanin gano ma’anarta. Da farko ga yadda Ƙamusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero Kano (2006) ya fassara ta:
(i)                    Abin da ake sha ko shafawa a jiki ko ɗurawa a jini ta hanyar yin allura, don neman samun lafiya.
(ii)                     Abin da samuwarsa kan kore wani daban, misali, tarko yana maganin ɓeraye.
(iii)            Sammu, wato harhaɗa wasu abubuwa da yin surkulle da nufin cutar da wani, musamman abokin gaba.
(iv)             Harhaɗawa ko yin wasu abubuwa na musamman don shawo kan wani, ko samun galaba a kan wani abu.
Dangane da hasashen masana kuwa, Ahmad, (1984), yana cewa:
Magani shi ne duk wani abu, da za a yi, ko wata hanya, ko kuma wata dabara da ake yi don gusar da cuta daga jikin mutum ɗungurungum ko kawo kwantar da ita don kawo jin, daɗi ko ga zuciya da sauƙaƙe duk wahala da damuwa da ita cutar kan iya haifarwa.
Musa (1986), yana  cewa:-
Magani wata hanya ce kawai ta neman biyan buƙatar wata matsala da ke damun mutum, ko kuma yana ganin matsalar tana yi masa barazana.
Zulai (1984), cewa ta yi:-
Magani hanya ce ta neman kawar, da cuta kowace iri ko kuma neman kariya daga gare ta ko kuma neman gwanewa ko ƙwarewa kan wani abu.
Alhassan da wasu (1982), sun ba da tasu ma’anar maganin gargajiya, suna cewa:
Maganin gargajiya shi ne yin amfani da itatuwa ko rubutu ko addu’a ko surkulle don warkar da wata cuta ko neman wani amfani ko gusar da sharri ko haddasa wani abu saboda biyan bukata. [1]

Bunza, 1995 ya bayar da ma’anar magani kamar haka:
Magani wata hanya ce ta warkarwa ko kwantar da, ko rage wata cuta ta ciki ko ta waje ko wadda aka samu, daga haɗari; ko kuma neman kariya ga cutar abokan hamayya ko cutar da su, ko neman ɗaukaka, da daraja ta hanyar ‘yan siddabaru, da sihiri na ban al’ajabi.
Duk waɗannan masana, kowanensu ya yi ƙoƙarin fito da nasa ra’ayi a kan ma’anar magani. Wannan ya nuna cewa, ‘magani’ kalma ce mai iya ɗaukar ma’ana mai faɗi, wadda kan sa dole a yi taka-tsantsan wajen bayar da bakandamiyar ma’anarta. Duk da haka, daga abin da aka kalato daga bakin masana ana iya cewa magani wata hanya ce ta kawar da, ko kwantar da, duk wata cuta ta jiki ko ta zuciya, ko neman ɗaukaka, ko kariya daga makaru da jifa da sihiri ko siddabaru.

3.0 Ma’anar Najasa
Kalmar ‘najasa’ ba Bahaushiya ba ce, aro ta Hausawa suka yi daga Larabci. A luggar Larabci najasa na nufin………Ma’anarta a Larabci ta yi canjaras da ta Hausa, saboda dukkaninsu a muhalli  iri ɗaya ne suke amfani da ita. Duk da haka, a Ƙamusun Hausa, an ba ta ma’anar:
Ƙazanta mai tauri-tauri ko ruwa-ruwa ga wari wadda mutum kan fitar ta duburarsa.
Har  ila yau, Ƙamusun ya kuma kawo kalmomin najasa na Hausa kamar haka: ‘kashi’ da ‘ratsi’ da ‘ba-haya’ da ‘tutu’ da ‘taroso’ da ‘gayaɗi’ da ‘artai’.
Idan aka nazarci wannan ma’anar najasa da Ƙamusun Hausa ya bayar, za a fahimci cewa, abubuwan da Bahaushe ke kira najasa sun wuce abin da ke fita ta dubura kawai. A fahintata, duk abin da ya fito ta dubura da ta al’aura da duk wani ruɓaɓɓen abinci mai wari ko abin sha, ko jini ko mushe ko wani sashe na jikin mushe, da duk wani nau’in ƙazanta, ko ƙasar wurin najasa, ana kiransu najasa.  Kalmar ‘ƙazanta’ tana da kusancin ma’ana da ‘najasa’, amma najasa ta fi samun karɓuwa ga masana addini, musamman a zaure ko soro wajen karatun furu’a. Saboda haka, tasirin addini da zamani sun taimaka ƙwarai wajen ɗaure wa kalmar najasa gindi da samun karɓuwa, saboda ma’anarta ta fi faɗi kuma ta fi sakayawa. 


4.0 Mazaunin Iska: 
Wuraren najasa na ɗaya daga cikin manyan mazaunan iskoki. Waɗannan  wuraren su ne  kamar haka:
i)                   Bola ko juji: Bola shi ne wurin zuba shara da tarkacen ƙazanta, kamar sauran abinci da ƙassan da aka gurgure aka yar a bola. Idan kuma rame ne aka haƙa don zuba shara ya zama birbizo. Iskoki suna zama irin wannan wurin ko ramen, saboda suna cin sauran abincin da bani Adam suka ci da ƙasusuwan da suka tsotse suka zubar a bola.
ii)                 Wuraren bahaya: A nan ana nufin wurare na musamman da aka killace ko filin wajen gari wanda ba a killace ba, don kewayawa a biya bukata, kamar masai ko shadda ko bayan gida. Iskoki musamman nau’in baƙaƙe ko kafirai, masu tsananin cutarwa, suna sha’awar zama wuraren bahaya, saboda shaƙar warin wannan ƙazantar ko najasar.
iii)               Mayanka ko mahauta: Mayanka ita ce wurin da ake yanka dabbobi kamar shanu da awaki da tumaki da sauransu. Irin wannan wuri ba a raba shi da iskoki saboda akwai manyan nau’o’in abincinsu iri biyu a wurin, wato jini da ƙashi.
iv)               Wuraren wanke-wanke: A nan ana nufin wuraren da ake wanke kwanonin abinci ana samun ’yan gutsattsarin abinci da ƙananan ƙassa da sauransu, ruwan wanke-wanken suna taruwa su zama kwata ko kwatami. Iskoki suna sha’awar zama wurin don ƙazantar da ke wurin da kuma tunanin samun na-baka.
v)                  Majema: Shi ne wurin da ake jeme fata ana fitar da gashin jikinta. Kamar yadda muka sani wuri ne mai mugun wari. Shi ya sa Bahaushe ke ce wa a karin maganarsa: ……………………………. Iska kan zauna irin wannan wuri saboda wannan dagwalon wurin mai wari da ke wurin.
Daga cikin aljannu waɗanda suka fi zama  wauraren  ƙazanta su ne, kafiran  aljannu, kamar  yadda  Wahid Baliy  ya ce, ya tambayi  wani  aljani  Musulmi, ko yana  zama a  makewayi?  Sai  aljanin  ya ce,  “a'a”, sai  ya ce  masa, amma an ruwaito cewa,  kuna  zama  a  wuraren  najasa: sai  ya ce,  “I,  amma  wannan  ya  keɓanta  ga  kafiran  aljannu,  domin  su  sun  fi  son   wuraren  ƙazanta.”[2]

5.0 Mahaɗi Da Najasa :
A fagen ilimin magungunan gargajiya, sinadari ko mahaɗi na nufin harhaɗa itace da wasu albarkatun ƙasa ko sama, ko haɗa wani ganye da wani ko wata saiwa da wata ko gamingambizar tsirrai da itace da ƙwaro da wasu abubuwa, don yin magani (Bunza 2004). Saboda haka, mahaɗan magungunan Iskoki na nufin tarsashin abubuwan da za a tanadar, na daga itace da tsirrai da makamantansu, da lokacin da za a nemo su, da haɗa su, da yanayin haɗa su. Bahaushe yana mahaɗi da najasa a wajen magungunan  da zai warkar da cutar iskoki ko waɗanda zai nemi taimakonsu don su cutar ko don biyan wata bukata, saboda a kimiyyarsa, ya fahimci suna da sha’awar lazimtar wuraren najasa. Bisa ga haka, akan samu najasa a mahaɗin  dukkanin rukunnan magunguna, amma an fi samunta a rukunnan magungunan warkarwa ko na cutarwa, kamar haka:

5.1 Magungunan Warkarwa:
Magungunan warkarwa su ne waɗanda ake amfani das u don warkar da cutar iska ga jiki ko zuciya. Misali:                  
  • Cutar taɓin hankali, ana haɗa sassaƙen itacen jirga da ɗoɗɗoya da kashin tunku da tsabre, a dake su a turara wa mai cutar, zai warke da yardar Allah.
  • Idan farfaɗiya ce, ana yin turare ta hanyar haɗa: kashin tunku, da kashin baƙin jaki, da kan tsabre, da bunsurun fadama, da bunsurun doguwa, da hankufa, da kimbar maharba, da kwalfar jigo, da kitsen baƙin sa, da kitsen baƙar akuya. Za a dake su wuri ɗaya ana yin turare da garin, kullum, safe da yamma, zai warke da yardar Allah.[3]
·         Akan yi mahaɗi da fitsarin raƙumi a shaƙa wa mai cutar iska ko ƙasar wurin kwanciyarsa, don magance cutar iska.
·         Akan turara kashin kaji ga mai cutar farfaɗiya don ta sake shi nan take.
·          Akan yi turare da ƙashi don kama gawurtaccen macijin da ake jin iska ne ko iska ya shige shi.
  • Akan yi turare da matattar jaɓa don ƙone iskan da ya ƙi fita ga jikin ɗan Adam.[4]
5.2 Magungunan Cutarwa:
Magungunan cutarwa su ne (Bunza 1995) ya kira su magungunan sharri. Mafi yawan magungunan cutarwa sai an haɗa da iskoki, wato a neman taimakonsu ta amfani ko mahaɗin najasa don cutar da rayuwar wani mutum. Ga abin da (Bunza, 1995) ke cewa:
Mafi yawan magungunan da za a haɗa da najasa miyagun magunguna ne na sharri. Abubuwan da aka fi yin mahaɗar magani da su na najasa, sun haɗa da maniyi, da jini mai feshi, da maziyyi, ko wadiyyi, da fitsari, da kashi, da mushe, da dai sauransu.
Haka kuma, falsafar Bahaushe ta yin mahaɗi da najasa ga neman taimakon aljani ko iska ita ce don ya yi wa iska abin da yake so, shi kuma ya biya masa bukatarsa ta cutar da wani. Misali:
·         Ana mahaɗi da wani kifi mai suna gawo da wutsiyar kurege don kashe zakarin namiji. Mushen dabba ko sassanta duk najasa ne. Idan aka yi mahaɗi da sassan jiki ko makamantansu, a matsayin mahaɗin magani, to a fahimtar Bahaushe, an yi tsafi ko sihiri, wato an nemi taimakon iskoki ke nan.

·         Ana mahaɗi da salintar maciji da kashin ungulu don raba mata da mijinta.
·         Ana mahaɗi da matattar kulɓa da yatsun ɗan Adam don kuturta wani, da sauransu.
·         Akan yi mahaɗi da gashin kan mutum wanda aka aske don a yi masa makaru.   
·         Idan malama tsibbu suna son su haukata mutum za su samo icen da tsawa ta faɗa wa, da ƙwai wanda ya lalace (ya zama dunge). Za a rubuta sunan wanda ake son a haukata a icen da jikin ƙwan, a sanya shi cikin garwashin da babu hayaƙi a gare shi, a karanta Fatiha ƙafa ɗari uku da tamanin da takwas. Ga hatimin da za haɗa da shi. Da an ƙare aikin mutumin zai kuwwata, ya dinga cin najasa (Bunza, 1995).
·         Bahaushe na cewa, hannu musamman yatsu dahi gare su saboda amfani da ake da su wajen fitar da najasa ga jiki da yawan saduwarsa da yawun ɗan Adam. Bahaushe na ganin idan ana shafar ƙurji da hannu zai daɗa rurewa. Duk wata cuta ta jiki idan aka sa hannu tsiraransa za ta ɗara haɓaka. Haka kuma, yana ganin, idan aka doki yaro da hannu, ko aka doki wata dabba da hannu. Idan aka ga alamar suma rayuwa na son ta yi halinta, a umurci wanda ya yi dukan da ya hura hannayensa a tafin hannunsa da yatsu cutar ba za ta halaka abin da aka doka ba (Bunza, 1995).
·         A cikin camfin Bahaushe akwai cewar idan mutum ya shafa kwantsar jaki ko ta doki ga idonsa zai ga aljani amma zai mutu.
Waɗannan su ne kaɗan daga cikin misalai na mahaɗi da najasa wajen maganin cutar iskoki ko neman taimakonsu ga cutarwa.
Har ila yau, daga cikin abin da ke tabbatar mana cewa akwai alaƙa tsakanin najasa da iskoki, shi ne kula da siffa ko yanayin da mahaukaci ko mai taɓin hankali yake ciki na zama cikin ƙazanta da dauɗa da wari da ragga/tsumma. Idan yana tsare ko sake duk cikin wannan siffar yake. Hausawa kan ce, ‘abin ba daɗi, wai mahaukaci ya ci kashi.’


6.0   Masu Bayar da Maganin Iska
Masu bayar da magungunan iskoki a al’ummar Hausawa suna da yawa, wasu ma ba a ko san da su ba, sai buƙatar bayar da maganin ta taso, da yake ba su mayar da abin sana’a ba. Sanannu kuma shahararrun masu bayar da magungunan iskoki, kuma waɗanda suka riƙi bayar da maganin a matsayin sana’a, sun haɗa da:
1.             Bokaye
Magabata kuma masana al’adun Hausawa sun tattauna a kan boka da yanayinsa[5]. Gabanin bayyanar addinin Musulunci a ƙasar Hausa, bokaye su ke cin karensu ba babbaka wajen warkar da cuta ta jiki da ta ƙwaƙwalwa da buƙatocin jama’a. Haka kuma, su ne masu kulawa da hulɗa tsakanin mutane da iskoki. Haka kuma, bokaye suna yin amfani da iskoki wajen tsafe-tsafen sharri, kamar halbin kasko ko kurciya ko kashe rayuwa gaba ɗaya.

2.             ’Yan bori
’Yan bori suna cikin nau’i na bokaye a ƙasar Hausa, domin duk wani ƙasurgumin boka daga bori ya fara. ’Yan bori su suka fi hulɗa da iskoki, musamman miyagu masu haddasa ciwon hauka, da sauran rashin lafiya. Hanyoyin bayar da magungunansu su ne ta fuskar wasan bori, da girka. Ga abin da Shata ke cewa a kan ɗan bori cikin waɗar Sarkin Bori Sule:
                        Jagora :           :Yau wannan zamani,
            :Wannan lokaci,
            :Kowa yake zazzaɓi,
            :Ka ga ana gai da shi,
            :Yana amsawa jifa-jifa,
            :Ku zo gun mai bori Sule!
            :(Yanzu) sai ka ga ya warware,
            :Yana yawon duniya.

Amshi :           :Sarkin Bori Sule
           Gindin Waƙa: :Sarkin Bori Sule
                                             :Na Kande Uban-
                                                 :’Yan boru Sule

3.             Malaman Tsibbu
Ayyukan Malaman tsibbu sun gabata a cikin littattafan magabata (Grenbergh: 1946, ’Yan ɗaki: 1990, Bunza:1995). Malamin tsibbu shi ne kishiyar boka, don shi ya fara dushe hasken boka da ɗaukakarsa a cikin al’umma. Malamin tsibbu, yakan yi amfani da iskoki ko rafanai wajen aikata magungunan sharri ko halakar da wani. Shi ya sa ake yi masa kirari da cewa:
Kigo mai Rangwangwan,
                                    Yini karatu, kwana salla.

4.         Masu Ruƙiyya
Malamin ruƙiyya wani nau’in malami ne daga cikin malaman Musulunci da ke ba da magungunan cutukan iskoki ta hanyar karanta ayoyin Alƙur’ani cikin kunnen maras lafiya. A ƙasar Hausa, goshin ƙarni na ashirin da ɗaya ne, aka samu bayyana da shaharar Ruƙiyya, saboda samun waɗanda suka riƙe ta a matsayin sana’a. A halin yanzu, a ƙasar Hausa da maƙwabtanta, babu waɗanda kasuwarsu ke ci gadan-gadan, daga cikin masu ba da maganin Iskoki, kamar masu ruƙiyya. Wannan shi ya kawo haɓakar ruƙiyya, aka samu tasirin zamananci a wajen gudanar da ita. Suna kafa Santoci masu kama da asibitocin zamani a wurare daban-daban cikin garuruwan ƙasar Hausa. Wannan nazarin ya gano santoci fiye da 30 a garuruwan Sakkwato da Kabi da Gusau da Katsina da Zariya da Kano da Kaduna, inda marasa lafiyar iskoki ke tururuwa wajen amsar magani da yi musu ruƙiyya. Haka kuma, Santocin sun zama wata hanya ta samar da harkar yi da bunƙasa tattalin arziki, musamman ganin yadda masu Santocin ke ta buɗe rassan Santocin, da kuma yadda suke tafiyar da harkokin rayuwarsu.



5.        Masu Sana’o’in Gargajiya
Bayan shahararrun masu bayar da magungunan iskoki da aka yi bayaninsu, akwai kuma sarakuna ko shugabannin wasu sana’o’i na gargajiya. Sana’o’in gargajiya su ne waɗanda aka gada kaka da kakanni. Bayan gudanar da sana’ar, suna kuma taimakawa da magungunan cutukan da suka shafi sana’ar, da na iskoki. Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata, daga cikin dalilan hulɗar Hausawa da iskoki akwai: don kare martabar gida ko sana’a. A ƙoƙarin kare martabar sana’a, da neman kariya daga wani mai ƙyashin sana’ar, ko nuna wata waibuwa da gwaninta, sai a nemi abota ko hulɗa da iskoki kai tsaye ko ta hanyar bokaye ko shugabannin tsafin gari. Wannan shi ya haifar da, da wuya a samu wata daɗaɗɗiyar sana’ar gargajiyar da masu ita ba su gadi iskokin ko tsafin kare martabar sana’ar ba. Kodayake a halin yanzu, an fara samun jikokin ire-iren waɗannan gidajen, sun fara watsi da ire-iren waɗannan kayan gadon, saboda tasirin Musulunci a rayuwarsu. Daga cikin shugabannin sana’o’in gargajiya masu ba da magungunan cutukan iskoki akwai:
-                 Ma’aska/Wanzamai: Su ne waɗanda ke yin aski da kaciya da tsagar gado a fuska ko ta ciwo a jiki. Wanzamai suna da alaƙa da iskoki, saboda suna tu’ammali da jini, ɗaya daga cikin abincin iskoki. Bayan magungunan da suke bayarwa waɗanda suka danganci cutukan da suka shafi sana’arsu, Wanzamai sukan bayar da maganin cutukan iskoki, kamar matsalolin jinin al’ada ga mata ko karya sihirin ɗan baka da sihirin kashe zakarin namiji, da maganin maye, da sauransu.
-                 Masunta: Su ne masu sana’ar su (kamun kifi). Kabawa suna kiran su Sarkawa, wato daga sunan wata ƙabila da ake kira ‘Soroko’ a ƙasar Mali, tsohuwar daular Songhai. Soroko su suka kawo wa Kabawa sana’ar kamun kifi. Masunta Suna da alaƙa da iskokin Ruwa, saboda yawan shiga ruwa da suke yi. Bayan magungunan da suke bayarwa na sanyin ruwa da sauransu, suna kuma ba da maganin cutukan iskokin ruwa, kamar su makwakkwafa, wato yawan shan ruwa amma ba su kau da matsalar ƙishirwa ba. Sukan kuma karya duk wani makaru da aka yi aka jefa ruwa, da sauransu. Sukan kuma yi ’yan tsafe-tsafensu da iskoki don nuna gwaninta da waibuwa, kamar siddabarun fito da ƙaya a jikin mutum, da dabon kifi a ruwa da kuma sihirin rage zurfin ruwa, ko taka saman ruwan gulbi suna tafiya kamar suna taka ƙasa, da kiran dabbar ruwa ta fito ta kwanta a gaban wanda ya kira ta da kamun kifi bisa faƙo da sauransu. Fulani Jogwadawa su suka fi shahara da wannan tsafi.[6]
-                 Mahauta: Su ne ake kira Runji a Sakkwato, wato masu sana’ar yanke dabba da sayar da namanta. Suna da alaƙa da iskoki saboda tu’ammali da abincin iskoki, wato jini da ƙasusuwan dabbobin da suke yankawa. Sukan siddabaru a wajen wasan hawan ƙaho. Haka kuma, mafi yawan ’yan dambe rundawa ne. ’Yan dambe suna cikin rukunin Hausawa da suka yi suna wajen amfani da iskoki wajen tsafe-tsafensu na neman galaba ga abokin wasa.
-                 Maharba: Su ne masu sana’ar harbi ko farautar namun daji, wato dabbobin da ke rayuwa a dawa ko daji. Suna mu’amala da iskokin dawa, saboda koyaushe suna cikin daji, dare da rana. Maharba sukan ba da maganin taɓin iskokin dawa irin su Ɗan tsatsumbe da Ɗan dagizge, da iskokin Tsamiya da Kuka da sauransu. Suna kuma ba da maganin ciwon daji da na halbin kasko, da ciwon tsuntsu (ƙyan-ƙyan), ciwo ne da kan kama yara a ga suna firgita kamar suna jin sanyi. Haka kuma suna tsafe-tsafe wajen kama dabbobin daji, kamar tsafin baduhu da kauda da ƙuƙuwa da birkita-kwanci. Dubi arangama tsakanin maharbi Ilaje Mai baka Ɗanmamman da zaki, kamar yadda Mai komon daji Ɗan Hanne ya kawo a cikin waƙarsa, yana cewa:
Sai Ilaje yac ce a’a,
Zaki yac ce a’a,
Gardama tas sulle,
Cana tsakanin daji,
Ilaje sai yac ce mai,
Arewa ƙwallare ya ey,
Tun da Allah Yay yi ni,
Tun ina yaro ban taɓa harbin,
Naman dawa shi kai labari,
Yau ana wadda akai,
Sai Zaki yac ce mai,
Arewa ƙwallare ya ey,
Tun da Allah Yay yi ni nan tsakanin daji,
Ban taɓa murza naman gida,
Yak kai labari,
Yau ana wadda akai,

7.0 Naɗewa
Tirƙashi!, ashe ‘sanin asali ya sa kura cin kanjilo’. Hausawa tun suna cikin Maguzanci ba su yi ƙasa-a-gwuiwa ba kan sha’anin kiyon lafiyarsu. Babu shakka kimiyyar haɗa magungunan Bahaushe ba abin renawa ba ce idan aka kasa ta a faifan nazari, musamman ta ƙoƙarin gano alaƙar najasa da iskoki domin yin mahaɗi da ita a magance cutukansu ko neman taimakonsu. A wannan maƙalar, akwai hasashen cewa, najasa wata kadarko ce a cikin sinadarai ko mahaɗin maganin iska a Bahaushiyar al’ada. Wannan ya tabattar da cewa, akwai cutukan da har yanzu asibitocin zamani ba su samo musu ƙwayoyin haɗiya ba, sai dai a dawo ga “Masu abu”, wato iskoki. Ashe gaskiyar Bahaushe da ke cewa, ‘karen da ya yi cizo da gashinsa ake magani.’

 



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[1] Dubi Habib Alhassan da Wasu, Zaman Hausawa (1982). Shafi na 52.  
[2]  Dubi Wahid A. Bali (1988) Wiƙayatul Insana Minal Jinni Was Shaiɗan. Darul Bashir Al-Ƙahira (Masar), shafi na   13
[3] Hira da Ada mai Rafani sabon Birni. Ranar 15/9/2000.
[4] Hira da Mal Ɗanjuma Zuru mai maganin iska, a gidansa da ke Farfaru Sakkwato.
[5] Don ƙarin bayani, dubi Tremearne,  (1968)  The Ban of Bori Demons and Demon, dancing in West Afirca, London, da lamba ta 1 a wannan maƙalar.
[6] Dubi Musa Shehu, “Waibuwar Masunta”. muƙalar da aka gabatar a Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Ɗanfodiyo, Sakkwato.

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